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Taekwondo Techniques

When Taekwondo techniques are broken down, the smallest meaningful units of technical terms, which cannot be split any smaller, are defined as ‘the basics of Taekwondo.’

Kkeokgi (꺾기) Snapping

Techniques of restraining by pressing or twisting the opponent’s joints
These are restraining skills to press or twist the opponent’s wrist, elbow, shoulder, ankle, or knee with the performer's hand. These skills are executed when the performer is seized by the assailant or one is grabbing the opponent at close range.

  • Nulleo-kkeokgi (눌러꺾기) Pressing and Snapping
    A snapping technique by pressing the assailant’s joints
    This is a snapping skill to grab the opponent by the arm and press his or her elbow or shoulder joint with an arc hand or to grab the opponent by the leg and press his or her knee joint.
    <Use>
    Mureup-nulleo-kkeokgi / 무릎 눌러꺾기 / Knee Pressing and Snapping
    Palgup-nulleo-kkeokgi / 팔굽 눌러꺾기 / Elbow Pressing and Snapping
  • Biteureo-kkeokgi (비틀어꺾기) Twisting and Snapping
    A snapping technique by twisting the assailant’s joints
    This is a snapping skill to twist the opponent’s arm in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction when the performer is grabbed by the wrist or the collar.
    <Use>
    Sonmok-biteureo-kkeokgi / 손목 비틀어꺾기 / Wrist Joint Twist & Snapping
    Palgup-biteureo-kkeokgi / 팔굽 비틀어꺾기 / Elbow Twist & Snapping

Neomgigi (넘기기) Throwing down or Tripping up

Tripping up or throwing down techniques by pulling or pushing the opponent off balance

  • Georeo-neomgigi (걸어넘기기) Tripping-up Technique or Sweeping Technique
    A technique by tripping up or sweeping the opponent’s leg
    This is a tripping-up skill to pull the opponent by the arm or the collar, or to push the opponent’s chest or shoulder with a hand and, at the same time, trip up or sweep the opponent’s ankle or the crook of the knee with the performer's foot or leg.
    <Use>
    Balmok-georeo-neomgigi / 발목 걸어넘기기 / Ankle Tripping-up Technique
    Ogeum-georeo-neomgigi / 오금 걸어넘기기 / Inner Knee Tripping-up Technique
  • Deureo-neomgigi (들어넘기기) Throwing-down Technique
    A throwing down technique by lifting the opponent up
    This is a throwing-up skill using the strength of the performer’s waist springing from the bottom up while holding up the opponent’s arm or leg with one's hands or arms.
    <Use>
    Ogeum-deureo-neomgigi / 오금 들어넘기기 / Inner Knee Throwing?down Technique

Ditgi (딛기) Stepping

Movements of changing directions or one’s feet to various points in order to adjust one’s distance to the opponent, where one executes attacks or makes defensive moves
These include all kinds of foot movements involved in taekwondo and are used in the form of nae-ditgi, dora-ditgi, mo-ditgi, mulleo-ditgi, yeop-ditgi and jejari-ditgi.

  • Nae-ditgi (내딛기) Forward Step
    A motion of changing the center of gravity towards the front
    This is a movement to take one step or more with the front or rear foot while moving the center of gravity forward. If the front foot advances first, it is called apbal-nae-ditgi and the rear foot, dwitbal-nae-ditgi.
    <Use>
    (Du-bal) nae-ditgi / (두 발) 내딛기 / (Two-foot) Forward Step
    Dwitbal-nae-ditgi / 뒷발 내딛기 / Rear Foot Forward Step
    Apbal-nae-ditgi / 앞발 내딛기 / Front Foot Forward Step
  • Dora-ditgi (돌아딛기) Turning Step
    A motion of changing direction to the left or right or back
    This is a motion of taking a step by turning one foot clockwise or counterclockwise centering around the other foot. When the upper body turns backward to the left, it is called wen-dora-ditgi and to the right, oreun-dora-ditgi.
    <Use>
    Oreun-dora-ditgi / 오른 돌아딛기 / Right Turn Step
    Wen-dora-ditgi / 왼 돌아딛기 / Left Turn Step
    Dwi-dora-ditgi / 뒤 돌아딛기 / Back Turn Step
  • Mo-ditgi (모딛기) Diagonal Step
    A motion of moving the center of gravity diagonally
    This is a movement of moving the left or right foot diagonally forward or backward to move the center of gravity to the side of left front, left back, right front or right back.
    <Use>
    Oreun-dwi-ditgi / 오른뒤 딛기 / Right Backward Step
    Oreun-ap-ditgi / 오른앞 딛기 / Right Forward Step
    Wen-dwi-ditgi / 왼뒤 딛기 / Left Backward Step
    Wen-ap-ditgi / 왼앞 딛기 / Left Forward Step
  • Mulleo-ditgi (물러딛기) Backward Step
    A motion of moving the center of gravity backward
    This is a movement of traveling one or more steps backward with the front or rear foot while moving the center of gravity backward. If the front foot steps back first, it is apbal-mulleo-ditgi and if the rear foot moves first it is dwitbal-mulleo-ditgi.
    <Use>
    (Dubal) mulleo-ditgi / 두 발 물러딛기 / Two-foot Backward Step
    Dwitbal-mulleo-ditgi / 뒷발 물러딛기 / Rear Foot Backward Step
    Apbal-mulleo-ditgi / 앞발 물러딛기 / Front Foot Backward Step
  • Yeop-ditgi (옆딛기) Side Step
    A motion of moving the center of gravity to the left or right
    This is a movement of stepping to the left or the right while shifting the center of gravity.
    <Use>
    Oreun-ditgi / 오른 딛기 / Right Step
    Wen-ditgi / 왼 딛기 / Left Step
  • Jejari-ditgi (제자리딛기) Stepping in place
    A motion of bobbing in a fixed position
    This is a movement of keeping the center of gravity in between the front and rear foot and moving the feet up and down simultaneously or alternating the feet while stepping in a fixed position.

Ttwigi (뛰기) Jumping

Applications of a jumping movements to apply the diverse technical skills of taekwondo
These are movements used to attack a target that is higher or farther than normal, or to evade the opponent’s attack. They can involve one or more vertical turns or horizontal flips.

  • Nopi-ttwigi (높이뛰기) High Jump
    A motion of springing up to deliver a strike to a high target
    This is a springing up movement to reach a high target, unreachable from a stationary posture, to strike it with a fist or foot.
  • Ttwieo-neomgi (뛰어넘기) Jumping over an obstacle
    A motion of leaping over an obstacle to execute a strike to the target
    This is a movement of jumping over a person or an object to strike the target with a foot or a fist.
  • Ttwieo-dolgi (뛰어돌기) Jumping Turn
    A motion of making one or more full turn in the air vertically or horizontally
    This is a movement of springing up to make one or more full turns. If one makes a horizontal motion such as dolgae-chagi (Whirl kick) or 540° Dwihuryeo-chagi (540° Back Whip Kick), it is called garo-dolgi (Horizontal Turning). A vertical kick, such as gongjungjebi-chagi (Jumping Flip Kick) or gongjungjebi-modum-chagi (Jumping Flip Drawing Kick) is called sero-dolgi (Vertical Turning).
    <Use>
    Garo-dolgi / 가로돌기(=수직축회전) / Horizontal Turning (=Vertical Axis Spinning)
    Sero-dolgi / 세로돌기(=수평축회전) / Vertical Turning (=Horizontal Axis Spinning)
  • Meolli-ttwigi (멀리뛰기) Long Jump
    A movement of jumping to attack a target at a distance
    This is a jumping movement to attack a target at a distance unreachable from where one is standing with a fist or foot.

Makgi (막기) Blocking

Techniques of protecting the vital parts of the defender’s body from the assailant’s attack by blocking it off with a hand, arm, foot or leg
Cheo-makgi (Striking Block) is one of the conventional blocking skills frequently used in defensive taekwondo techniques. The defender confronts the assailant’s attack by matching force for force. Occasionally, bada-makgi (Absorbing Block) absorbing the impact of punching and kicking attacks, georeo-makgi (Tripping Block) obstructing the offense in advance, and geodeo-makgi (Deflecting Block) deflecting or pushing off the opponent’s attack are also employed.

  • Gawi-makgi (가위막기) Scissors Block
    A technique of executing anpalmok-bakkat-makgi (Inside Wrist Outward Block) and naeryeo-makgi (Downward Block) simultaneously.
    This skill is named after a scissoring motion of crossing both arms each other at the front of the chest. One hand makes an outward block with the inside wrist while the other makes a downward block with the outside wrist simultaneously to block the attack of the assailant aimed at the trunk and lower body of the defender.
  • Geodeureo-makgi (거들어막기) Supporting Block
    A blocking technique of one hand with the support of the other
    This is a supporting motion of the other hand to generate a stronger force when blocking the opponent’s attack. It is also used as a preparatory motion to follow up the next move.
  • Geodeo-makgi (걷어막기) Deflecting Block
    A technique of pushing off the assailant’s attack to the side of the defender's body
    This is a skill to deflect the opponent’s attack abruptly with a hand or arm and break away from the direction of the attacker.
    <Use>
    Naeryeo-makgi / 내려막기 / Downward Block
    Bakkat-makgi / 바깥막기 / Outward Block
    An-makgi / 안막기 / Inward Block
    Ollyeo-makgi / 올려막기 / Upward Block
  • Georeo-makgi (걸어막기) Tripping Block
    A technique of intercepting the opponent’s attack in advance
    This is a blocking skill to trip up the assailant's attacking hand or foot with the defender's arm or leg to intercept the attack in advance. In gyeorugi (sparring) situations, when at close range with the opponent, the athlete may lift up both arms to prevent the opponent from landing a kick on the face.
    <Use>
    Balnal-georeo-makgi / 발날 걸어막기 / Foot Blade Tripping Block
    Sonnal-eotgeoreo-makgi / 손날 엇걸어막기 / Hand Blade Cross Block
    (Palmok) eotgeoreo-makgi / (팔목) 엇걸어막기 / (Wrist) Cross Block
  • Geumgang-makgi (금강막기) Geumgang Block
    A technique of combining ollyeo-makgi (Upward Block) and naeryeo-yeom-makgi (Downward Side Block) or bakkat-makgi (Outward Block)
    This skill is named after the statue of Geumgangyeoksa (literally, Diamond Warrior). When the opponent attacks the face and trunk or the face and lower body simultaneously, the defender may block upward with one hand to protect the face and block downward or outward with the other hand to protect the trunk or lower body. The defender may use the Hand Blades as well.
    <Use>
    Geumgang (naeryeo-yeom) makgi / 금강 (내려 옆)막기 / Geumgang (Downward Side) Block
    Geumgang-bakkat-makgi / 금강 바깥막기 / Geumgang Outward Block
    Sonnal-geumgang (naeryeo-yeom) makgi / 손날 금강 (내려 옆)막기 / Hand Blade (Downward Side) Block Sonnal-geumgang-bakkat-makgi / 손날 금강 바깥막기 / Hand Blade Outward Block
  • Naeryeo-makgi (내려막기) Downward Block
    A technique of blocking the assailant’s attack downward from top to bottom.
    This is a skill of blocking downward when the opponent attacks the defender’s stomach or genitals. One may use bakkatpalmok (Outside Wrist), batangson (Palm Heel), sonnal (Hand Blade), etc. to block from the chest level to the groin area.
    <Use>
    Geodeureo-naeryeo-makgi / 거들어 내려막기 / Supporting Downward Block
    (bakkatpalmok) naeryeo-makgi [=Arae-makgi] / (바깥팔목) 내려막기 [=아래막기] / (Outside Wrist) Downward Block [=Low Block]
    Sonnal-geodeureo-naeryeo-makgi / 손날 거들어 내려막기 / Hand Blade Supporting Downward Block Sonnal-naeryeo-makgi / 손날 내려막기 / Hand Blade Downward Block
    Sonnaldeung-geodeureo-naeryeo-makgi / 손날등 거들어 내려막기 / Ridge Hand Supporting Downward Block
  • Nulleo-makgi (눌러막기) Pressing Block
    A blocking technique of pressing downward against the assailant’s attack
    This is a skill of blocking the assailant's attack aimed at the stomach by pressing the defender's hand down from the chest level to the lower body. The Outside Wrist, Palm Heel, Hand Blade, etc. can be employed.
    <Use>
    (Bakkatpalmok) nulleo-makgi / (바깥팔목) 눌러막기 / (Outside Wrist) Pressing Block
    Batangson-nulleo-makgi / 바탕손 눌러막기 / Palm Heel Pressing Block
    Sonnal-nulleo-makgi / 손날 눌러막기 / Hand Blade Pressing Block
  • Bakkat-makgi (바깥막기) Outward Block
    A technique of blocking the assailant’s attack from the inside to the outside of the defender’s body
    This is a blocking skill with a motion from the inside to the outside of defender’s body using baggatpalmok (Outside Wrist), anpalmok (Inside Wrist), sonnal (Hand Blade), gupinsonmok (Bent Wrist), etc. when the assailant attacks from the outside or front side of the defender.
    <Use>
    Gupinsonmok-bakkat-makgi / 굽힌손목 바깥막기 / Bent Wrist Outward Block
    (Bakkatpalmok) geodeureo-bakkat-makgi / (바깥팔목) 거들어 바깥막기 / (Outside Wrist) Supporting Outward Block
    (Bakkatpalmok) Bakkat-makgi / (바깥팔목) 바깥막기 / (Outside Wrist) Outward Block
    Anpalmok-geodeureo-bakkat-makgi / 안팔목 거들어 바깥막기 / Inside Wrist Supporting Outward Block
    Anpalmok-bakkat-makgi / 안팔목 바깥막기 / Inside Wrist Outward Block
    Sonnal-geodeureo-bakkat-makgi / 손날 거들어 바깥막기 / Hand Blade Supporting Outward Block
    Sonnal-bakkat-makgi / 손날 바깥막기 / Hand Blade Outward Block
    Sonnaldeung-geodeureo-bakkat-makgi / 손날등 거들어 바깥막기 / Ridge Hand Supporting Outward Block
    Sonnaldeung-bakkat-makgi / 손날등 바깥막기 / Ridge Hand Outward Block
    Sonbadak-geodeureo-anpalmok-bakkat-makgi / 손바닥 거들어 안팔목 바깥막기 / Palm Supporting Inside Wrist Outward Block
  • Bada-makgi (받아막기) Absorbing Block
    A technique of alleviating the impact of the assailant’s attack by absorbing it with a hand or foot of the defender
    This is a skill of reducing the shock and pain generated by the assailant’s attack by buffering its direct path of attack.
    <Use>
    Balbadak-badamakgi / 발바닥 받아막기 / Foot Sole Absorbing Block
    Sonbadak-badamakgi / 손바닥 받아막기 / Palm Absorbing Block
    Junggangi-badamakgi / 정강이 받아막기 / Shin Absorbing Block
  • Biteureo-makgi (비틀어막기) Twisting Block
    A technique of blocking with the opposite hand of the advancing foot with a twisting motion of the body
    This is a blocking skill using the opposite arm and leg to block and advance simultaneously. When advancing the left foot, the defender twists his or her body from the right to the left side and uses the right hand as a blocking surface and vice versa.
    <Use>
    (Bakkatpalmok) biteureo-naeryeo-makgi / (바깥팔목) 비틀어 내려막기 / (Outside Wrist) Twisting Downward Block
    (Bakkatpalmok) biteureo-bakkat-makgi / (바깥팔목) 비틀어 바깥막기 / (Outside Wrist) Twisting Outward Block
    Sonnaldeung-biteureo-bakkat-makgi / 손날등 비틀어 바깥막기 / Ridge Hand Twisting Outward Block
    Sonnal-biteureo-yeop-makgi / 손날 비틀어 옆막기 / Hand Blade Twisting Side Block
    Sonnal-biteureo-bakkat-makgi / 손날 비틀어 바깥막기 / Hand Blade Twisting Outward Block
    Anpalmok-biteureo-bakkat-makgi / 안팔목 비틀어 바깥막기 / Inside Wrist Twisting Outward Block
  • Santeul-makgi (산틀막기) Mountain Block
    A technique of blocking with both the inside and outside edges of the wrists simultaneously
    This is a skill of blocking two simultaneous attacks aimed at the defender’s face with the inside edge of the wrist to the clockwise direction and with the outside edge of the wrist to the counterclockwise direction. This block is a skill of blocking both sides at the same time with one’s arms in the shape of a mountain. Also, the Hand Blade and the Ridge Hand can be used.
    <Use>
    (Palmok) santeul-makgi / (팔목) 산틀막기 / (Wrist) Mountain Block
    Pyeonson-santeul-makgi / 편손 산틀막기 / Open Hand Mountain Block
    Hecheo-santeul-makgi / 헤쳐 산틀막기 / Double Mountain Block
  • An-makgi (안막기) Inward Block
    A technique of blocking from the outside to the inside of the defender’s body with the hand, foot, arm or leg
    When the assailant attacks from the front, the blocking surfaces such as ‘Outside Wrist’ (outside edge of the wrist), ‘Knife Hand’ (the outside edge of hand), ‘Palm Heel’ (heel of the palm) and ‘Reverse Foot Blade’ (inside edge of the foot) are employed to block it from the outside of defender’s body to the inside.
    <Use>
    (Bakkatpalmok) an-makgi [=Momtong-makgi] / (바깥팔목) 안막기 [=몸통막기] / (Outside Wrist) Inward Block [=Trunk Block]
    Batangson-an-makgi / 바탕손 안막기 / Palm Heel Inward Block
    Balnaldeung-an-makgi / 발날등 안막기 / Reverse Foot Blade Inward Block
    Sonnal-an-makgi / 손날 안막기 / Hand Blade Inward Block
    Anpalmok-an-makgi / 안팔목 안막기 / Inside Wrist Inward Block
  • Yeom-makgi (옆막기) Side Block
    A technique of blocking the opponent’s strike from the side
    This is a skill of blocking the opponent’s attack coming from the side by using the Outside Wrist, the Inside Wrist, the Hand Blade, the Ridge Hand and so forth. This skill is executed by swinging a hand from the inside to the side and occasionally, one may use both hands to block ? one hand blocks with the support of the other.
    <Use>
    (Bakkapalmok) geodeureo-naerye-yeommakgi / (바깥팔목) 거들어 내려 옆막기 / (Outside Wrist) Supporting Downward Side Block
    (Bakkatpalmok) geodeureo-yeom-makgi / (바깥팔목) 거들어 옆막기 / (Outside Wrist) Supporting Side Block
    (Bakkatpalmok) naeryeo-yeom-makgi / (바깥팔목) 내려 옆막기 / (Outside Wrist) Downward Side Block
    (Bakkatpalmok) yeommakgi / (바깥팔목) 옆막기 / (Outside Wrist) Side Block
    Sonnal-geodeureo-naeryeo-yeom-makgi / 손날 거들어 내려 옆막기 / Hand Blade Supporting Downward Side Block
    Sonnal-geodeureo-yeom-makgi / 손날 거들어 옆막기 / Hand Blade Supporting Side Block
    Sonnal-naeryeo-yeom-makgi / 손날 내려 옆막기 / Hand Blade Downward Side Block
    Sonnaldeung-geodeureo-naeryeo-yeom-makgi / 손날등 거들어 내려 옆막기 / Ridge Hand Supporting Downward Side Block
    Sonnaldeung-yeom-makgi / 손날등 옆막기 / Ridge Hand Side Block
    Sonnal-yeom-makgi / 손날 옆막기 / Hand Blade Side Block
    Anpalmok-geodeureo-yeom-makgi / 안팔목 거들어 옆막기 / Inside Wrist Supporting Side Block
    Anpalmok-yeom-makgi / 안팔목 옆막기 / Inside Wrist Side Block
  • Ollyeo-makgi (올려막기) Upward Block
    A technique of blocking the opponent’s attack upward
    When attacked, the defender can use the Outside Wrist, Hand Blade or Palm Heel to block upward from the lower to the upper position.
    <Use>
    Gupinsonmok-ollyeo-makgi / 굽힌손목 올려막기 / Bent Wrist Upward Block
    Kkeureoolligi [=Anpalmok-ollyeo-makgi] / 끌어올리기 [=안팔목 올려막기] / Kkuereo-olligi [=Inside Wrist Upward Block]
    (Bakkatpalmok) ollyeo-makgi [=eolgul-makgi] / (바깥팔목) 올려막기 [=얼굴막기] / (Outside Wrist) Upward Block [=Face Block]
    Sonnal-ollyeo-makgi / 손날 올려막기 / Hand Blade Upward Block
  • Oesanteul-makgi (외산틀막기) Single Mountain Block
    A technique of combining anpalmok-bakkat-makgi (Inside Wrist Outward Block) and bakkatpalmok-naryeo-makgi (Outside Wrist Downward Block)
    This is a skill of blocking the attacks aimed at the face and the lower part of the body. The face is blocked with the Inside Wrist of one hand while the lower part of the body with the Outside Wrist of the other hand to the side. The defender may use a combination of the Hand Blade and Ridge Hand (the inside edge of the hand) instead.
    <Use>
    (Palmok) oe-santeul-makgi / (팔목) 외산틀막기 / (Wrist) Single Mountain Block
    Pyeonson-oe-santeul-makgi / 편손 외산틀막기 / Open Hand Single Mountain Block
  • Cha-makgi (차막기) Kicking Block
    A technique of blocking the assailant’s attack by striking it with the foot or leg
    This blocking skill is to directly confront the opponent’s advance by striking it with the leg or foot, causing serious injury to the attacker. This skill makes defense and offense possible at the same time.
    <Use>
    Bakkat-cha-makgi / 바깥 차막기 / Outward Kicking Block
    An-cha-makgi / 안 차막기 / Inward Kicking Block
    Ap-cha-makgi / 앞 차막기 / Front Kicking Block
    Yeop-cha-makgi / 옆 차막기 / Side Kicking Block
  • Chye-makgi (쳐막기) Striking Block
    A technique of blocking the opponent’s attack by striking it with the hand or arm
    This blocking skill is to directly confront the assailant's attack by strike it with the arm or hand, causing severe damage to the opponent. This skill makes defense and offense possible at the same time.
    <Use>
    Naeryeo (cheo) makgi / 내려 (쳐)막기 / Downward (Striking) Block
    Bakkat (cheo) makgi / 바깥 (쳐)막기 / Outward (Striking) Block
    An (cheo) makgi / 안 (쳐)막기 / Inward (Striking) Block
    Olryeo (cheo) makgi / 올려 (쳐)막기 / Upward (Striking) Block
  • Hecheo-makgi (헤쳐막기) Double (Outward) Block
    A blocking technique by crossing both wrists and pulling them out to the sides
    When the two opponents attack from two opposite sides, the defender crosses both wrists each other and pulls them away from each other in opposite directions. The blocking surfaces can be either the inside wrist or the outside wrists.
    <Use>
    (Bakkat-palmok) heocheo-makgi / (바깥팔목) 헤쳐막기 / (Outside Wrist) Double Block
    Sonnal-heocheo-makgi / 손날 헤쳐막기 / Hand Blade Double Block
    Sonnal-deung-heocheo-makgi / 손날등 헤쳐막기 / Ridge Hand Double Block
    An-palmok-heocheo-makgi / 안팔목 헤쳐막기 / Inside Wrist Double Block
  • Hwangso-makgi (황소막기) Bull Block
    A blocking technique of lifting the outside edges of both wrists over the head
    This is a blocking skill employed when the assailant attacks over the head of the defender. The defender lifts both arms abruptly over the head at a sloping angle in the shape of bull’s horns so that the opponent’s power is weakened down along the diagonal lines of the lifted forearms.

Milgi (밀기) Pushing

A motion to extend one’s arms or push away the opponent with one’s hands or feet
This is a movement to keep one’s distance with the opponent by pushing away in order to create sufficient space to facilitate an attack or to dodge the opponent’s attack.

  • Nalgae-pyegi (날개펴기) Wing Spreading
    A motion of pushing both palms to the sides as a bird spreads its wings
    This is a movement of lifting both hands up to the chest level and at the height of the shoulders, with the fingertips facing upward and spreading the elbows straight to the sides.
  • 밀어내기 Mireonaegi
    손이나 발로 가상의 큰 물체를 힘주어 천천히 미는 동작.
    실제 상대방과 맞붙었을 때에 사용하는 기술이 아니며 품새 등의 자기 수련에서 호흡을 조절하고 자기 수양을 위한 목적으로 사용하는 동작이다.
    <Use>
    날개펴기
    바위밀기
    통밀기
    태산밀기
  • 밀쳐내기 Milchyeonaegi
    상대방을 손이나 발로 갑자기 세게 미는 동작.
    겨루기를 할 때 상대방과의 거리를 확보하기 위해 두 손바닥이나 발을 이용하여 강한 힘으로 상대를 순간적으로 튕겨 내는 동작이다.
  • Bawi-milgi (바위밀기) Rock Pushing
    A motion of pushing an imaginary rock
    This is a rock pushing movement in order to focus the performer’s mind and control his or her breathing. This is performed in the forward stance with one hand at the waist and the other at the performer’s flank and both pushed up all the way to the face.
  • Taesan-milgi (태산밀기) Steep Mountain Pushing
    A motion of pushing an imaginary mountain
    This is a movement of pushing a big mountain in order to focus the performer’s mind and control his or her breathing. This movement can be delivered by putting the heels of both palms close to each other in the form of the Palm Heel. The fingertips on the side of the front foot should point down while those on the side of the rear foot point up. These open hands are to be pushed away at the front of the chest.
  • Tong-milgi (통밀기) Log Pushing
    A motion of pushing an imaginary log with both palms
    This is a movement lifting both palms from the dangeon (lower abdomen) all the way to the face with both palms facing upward and then slowly pushing both palms forward as if the performer holds a log and pushes it out.

Ppaegi (빼기) Pulling out

A technique of pulling oneself free when part of the defender's body is seized by the opponent
They are the skills executed by twisting or turning the joint and pulling it out when the defender’s wrist or ankle is grabbed by the assailant.

  • Nulleo-ppaegi (눌러빼기) Pressing and Pulling
    A technique of turning the grabbed wrist outward or inward and pressing it free
    This is a skill of turning the wrist grabbed by the opponent clockwise or counterclockwise and when the opponent’s hand is loosened, use the outside edge of the same hand to press the opponent's hand and pull it free.
  • Teureo-ppaegi (틀어빼기) Turning and Pulling
    A technique of instantly turning and pulling the grabbed wrist
    When the assailant grabs the defender’s wrist, make the grabbed hand open wide, turn the inner wrist into the point where the opponent’s thumb and four fingers meet and pull it out instantly.
    <Use>
    Araero (teulleo) ppaegi / 아래로 (틀어)빼기 / Downward (Turning and) Pulling
    Wiro (teulleo) ppaegi / 위로 (틀어)빼기 / Upward (Turning and) Pulling
  • Hwidulleo-ppaegi (휘둘러빼기) Swing and Pulling
    A technique of swinging inward or outward and pulling one’s wrist by using the performer's elbow or shoulder as an axis
    When grabbed by the arm or the collar, the defender may swing the arm widely on the axis of the elbow or the shoulder snapping the opponent’s arm and pullinf his or her wrist out.

Seogi (서기) Stance

Various postures of standing on one's feet in order to perform offensive and defensive techniques.
They are the various standing postures with feet positioned on the ground to efficiently shift the performer's center of gravity and/or change his or her directions.

  • Gyeotdari-seogi (곁다리서기) Assisting Stance
    A posture of bending the legs by moving the center of gravity on one foot and keeping the center of balance with the assistance of the other foot
    Both knees are lowered as in juchum-seogi (Riding Stance). The big toe of the assisting rear foot is brought inward to touch the middle part of the inside edge of the supporting front foot. With the supporting foot in place, the ball of the assisting foot only touches the ground when its heel is lifted off the ground.
  • Kkoa-seogi (꼬아서기) Cross Stance
    A stance with both feet crossing each other when moving or making a turn to the front, back or side.
    In the state of lowering the center of gravity, this is a posture used when shifting the performer’s body to the front, back or side. When the moving foot is shifted to the front of the supporting foot, it is called ap-kkoa-seogi (Front Cross Stance). When shifted to the back of the foot, dwi-kkoa-seogi (Rear Cross Stance).
    <Use>
    Dwi-kkoa-seogi / 뒤 꼬아서기 / Rear Cross Stance
    Ap-kkoa-seogi / 앞 꼬아서기 / Front Cross Stance
  • Narani-seogi (나란히서기) Parallel Stance
    A stance where both feet are parallel to each other
    This is a stance with both knees straightened, the center of gravity kept in the middle and the inside edges of both feet facing together. When the end of toes face inward, it is called anjjong-seogi (Inward Stance) and when they face outward, pyeoni-seogi (At Ease Stance)
    <Use>
    narani-seogi / 나란히 서기 / Parallel Stance
    anjjong-seogi / 안쫑서기 / Inward Stance
    pyeoni-seogi / 편히서기 / At Ease Stance
  • Dwitgubi (뒷굽이) Back Stance
    A stance with the center of gravity on the rear leg
    With both feet bent, the center of gravity is shifted backward and much of the weight is on the supporting rear leg. If the front leg is shifted more to the center of the body, this posture is called ojja?seogi (‘ㅗ’ Shape Stance).
    <Use>
    Oja-seogi / ‘ㅗ’자 서기 / ‘ㅗ’ Shape Stance
    Dwigubi / 뒷굽이 / Back Stance
  • Mo-seogi (모서기) Diagonal Stance
    A stance of facing diagonally with the center of gravity evenly distributed to both legs
    This is a stance where both feet are turned diagonally to attack the opponent or evade his or her offense.
  • Moa-seogi (모아서기) Closed Stance
    A stance with the inside edges of both feet completely closed together and both knees straightened
    Before or after poomsae, this posture is adopted to focus the performer’s mind and relieve his or her physical tension. When only the balls of the feet are closed together, it is called apchuk-moa-seogi, and only the bottoms of the heels are closed together, dwichuk-moa-seogi.
    <Use>
    (Dubal) moa-seogi / (두 발) 모아서기 / (Two-foot) Closed Stance
    Dwichuk-moa-seogi / 뒤축 모아서기 / Heel Closed Stance
    Apchuk-moa-seogi / 앞축 모아서기 / Toe Closed Stance
  • Beom-seogi (범서기) Tiger Stance
    A lowered stance of ap-seogi (Walking Stance) with both knees placed close enough to touch each other
    This is a stance to make both small and big motions easy toward the front or back. Both knees are placed close enough to touch each other with the heel of the front foot and the ball of the rear foot on a similar line. The heel of the front foot is off the ground while the center of gravity is almost on the rear foot.
  • Apgubi (앞굽이) Forward Stance
    A stance with the center of gravity on the front leg
    This is a stance of shifting the center of gravity forward and loading much of the weight on the supporting front leg.
  • Ap-seogi (앞서기) Walking Stance
    Stance of taking one walking step forward
    The width between the two feet is about the length of one walking step and the center of gravity remains in the middle with the trunk in an upright position.
  • Yeop-seogi (옆서기) Side Stance
    A stance of pivoting the right or left foot perpendicular to the inside edge of the other foot from narani-seogi (Parallel Stance)
    With both knees straightened, the width between the two feet is about the length of one foot. The end of the advancing foot should be at a right angle to the other foot.
    <Use>
    Oreun-seogi / 오른 서기 / Right Stance
    Wen-seogi / 왼 서기 / Left Stance
  • Juchum-seogi (주춤서기) Riding Stance
    A stance where both feet are parallel, both legs slightly bent with the width of two-one foot between them
    When looking down at the knees of both legs which are bent, they should be on the same line with the ends of feet. The trunk and both knees and shins should be upright. The trunk, knees and shins are in the upright position. When the ends of feet are turned inward, it is anjjong-juchum-seogi (Inward Riding Stance). When one foot is one step forward, it is ap-juchum-seogi (Forward Riding Stance). When one foot is diagonally forward, then it is called mo-juchum-seogi (Diagonal Riding Stance).
    <Use>
    (Narani) juchum-seogi / (나란히) 주춤서기 / (Parallel) Riding Stance
    Mo-juchum-seo / 모 주춤서기 / Diagonal Riding Stance
    Anjjong-juchum-seogi / 안쫑 주춤서기 / Inward Riding Stance
    Ap-juchum-seogi / 앞 주춤서기 / Forward Riding Stance
  • Hakdari-seogi (학다리서기) Crane Stance
    A stance of lowering one knee, while lifting up the other foot to place its inside edge near the inside edge of the knee or the crook of the knee (or the inner knee).
    This stance is named after the shape of a crane standing on one foot. The center of gravity is placed on one foot while the other foot is placed on the side of the knee of the supporting leg to stay on balance.
    <Use>
    Ogum-seogi / 오금서기 / Inner Knee Stance
    Hakdari-seogi / 학다리서기 / Crane Stance

Japgi (잡기) Grabbing

Auxiliary techniques of holding the opponent’s body, collar, etc. with the hands.
They are auxiliary skills to interfere with the opponent’s movement or seize him or her by grabbing a part of his or her body with the performer’s hands.

  • Japgi (잡기) Grabbing
    Auxiliary techniques of holding the opponent’s body, collar, etc. with the hands.
    They are auxiliary skills to interfere with the opponent’s movement or seize him or her by grabbing a part of his or her body with the performer’s hands.

Junbi-jase (준비자세) Ready Posture

Postures for physical relaxation, breath control and mental focus before executing taekwondo techniques
There are six fundamental, standardized postures in poomsae (patterns) whereas individuals may freely adopt postures in georugi (sparring) in accordance with their physical conditions and characteristics.

  • Gyeorugi-junbi (겨루기준비) Sparring Posture [=겨룸새: gyeorumsae]
    A posture freely taken by two opponents before sparring starts
    Standing sideways, one clenches both fists with the front arm bent about 90° and a hand lifted up to the level of the shoulder. The other arm is placed in front of the solar plexus, one fist width away. This posture is supposed to make offensive and defensive movements exchangeable at any time. If the left foot is in front, it is wen-gyeorumsae and when the right foot is in front, oren-gyeorumsae.
    <Use>
    Oreun-dora-ditgi / 오른 돌아딛기 / Right Turn Stance
    Wen-dora-ditgi / 왼 돌아딛기 / Left Turn Stance
  • Gyeopson-junbi (겹손준비) Overlapped-hand Posture
    A ready posture with both hands overlapped in front of dangeon
    This is a ready posture in the form of moa-seogi for the feet. Both hands are overlapped across each other with the left hand on top of the right. The overlapped hands should be slightly apart from the dangeon area.
  • Gibon-junbi (기본준비) Basic Posture
    A basic posture adopted before starting most poomsae
    This is a ready posture starting in a state of moa-seogi for the feet by moving the left foot one step to the side. Draw the open hands up to the level of the solar plexus and, as one breathes out, slowly transfer both fists to the level of danjeon.
  • Dujumeok-heori-junbi (두주먹허리준비) Two-fist-on-the-waist Posture
    A ready posture with both fists at the side of the waistline
    This is a ready posture with hammer fists placed on the waist. Starting in the form of moa-seogi for the feet, the back knuckles should face down and the elbows completely pulled back so that they cannot be seen from the frontal view.
  • Bojumeok-junbi (보주먹준비) Covered Fist Posture
    A ready posture of wrapping the right fist with the left hand and lifting them up to the front of the body
    In moa-seogi (Closed Stance), the right hand is clenched into a fist while the left hand is open wide to cover the right hand gently. The two hands should be lifted up from danjeon (the lower abdomen) to the philtrum or chest.
  • Tongmilgi-junbi (통밀기준비) Log Pushing Posture
    A ready posture appearing to push a log with the two palms
    In narani-seogi (Parallel Stance), both hand blades are lifted from danjeon all the way to the face. Then, the two hands are pushed forward slowly as if one pushes a log away.

Jireugi (지르기) Punching

Techniques of striking with the fists
They are the skills of striking the opponent’s vital points with the Fist, Extended Knuckle Fist, Pincers Fist, Trigger Finger Fist and Half?clenched Fist (Flat Fist). These striking surfaces are utilized with jireugi, jeocheo-jireugi (Turn-over Punch), dollyeo-jireugi (Turning Punch), dwi-jireugi (Punch to the rear), etc.
(Jumeok) jireugi / (주먹) 지르기 / (Wrist) Punch, Bamjumeok jireugi / 밤주먹 지르기 / Extended Knuckle Fist Punch, Jipge-jumeok-jireugi / 집게주먹 지르기 / Pincers Fist Punch, Jipge-bamjumeok jireugi / 집게밤주먹 지르기 / Trigger Finger Fist Punch, Pyeon-jumek-jireugi / 편주먹 지르기 / Half-clenched Fist Punch

  • Geumgang-jireugi (금강지르기) Geumgang Punch
    A technique of blocking upward and punching forward or sideways simultaneously
    This skill is named after the figure of Geumgangyeoksa statue (literally meaning, the Diamond Warrior, whose role was to protect the Buddhist temples during the period of the Silla dynasty in ancient Korea). One hand is used for ollyeo-makgi (Upward Block) while the other is used to deliver a strike to the face or trunk of the opponent standing in front or to the side.
    <Use>
    Geumgang-ap-jireugi / 금강 앞지르기 / Geumgang Forward Punch
    Geumgang-yeop-jireugi / 금강 옆지르기 / Geumgang Side Punch
  • Naeryeo-jireugi (내려지르기) Downward Punch
    A technique of striking a lower target with the fist
    This is a skill of striking a lower target by executing a vertical, downward punch by lowering one’s back. It is mainly used in breaking a target or attacking the opponent on the ground.
  • Digeutja-jireugi (‘ㄷ’자지르기) Diguetja Punch (‘ㄷ’ Shaped Punch)
    A technique of punching with both arms shaped after the Korean letter ‘ㄷ’
    The performer fist delivers oelgul-jireugi (Punch in the face) while the other does jeotcheo-jireugi (Turn-over Punch). When seen from a lateral view, this punching skill is executed in the shape of a Korean letter ‘ㄷ.’
  • Danggyeo-jireugi (당겨지르기) Pulling and Punching
    A technique of pulling the opponent with one hand and delivering a blow to the opponent’s chin or solar plexus with the fist turned over.
    By holding the opponent by the collar, one can immobilize him or her and deliver a blow in the chin or solar plexus with the fist turned upside down.
  • Dollyeo-jireugi (돌려지르기) Turning Punch
    A technique of striking the side of an opponent standing in front of the performer with the fist
    This is a skill of delivering a punch traveling in a circular motion to the side of a target. It is mainly used when attacking the side of the face or the side of the trunk.
  • Dwi-jireugi (뒤지르기) Punch to the rear
    A technique of striking a target behind the performer
    This is a skill of delivering a punch to the head of the opponent standing behind the performer. The fist travels in a circular motion by turning the waist to the target standing behind the back of the performer.
  • Sewo-jiruegi (세워지르기) Vertical Punch
    A technique of striking a target with the wrist turned vertically
    This skill is to throw the vertically erected fist straight to the target by using the turning force of the body.
  • Yeop-jireugi (옆지르기) Side Punch
    A striking technique by turning one’s body toward the side
    This skill is to throw the fist in a straight line by turning the body to the side using the turning force of the body.
  • Jeocheo-jireugi (젖혀지르기) Turn-over Punch
    A technique of striking the opponent with the fist turning over
    When the opponent closes in, the performer strikes the opponent's ribs from the bottom up.
    <Use>
    Bam-jumeok-jeocheo-jireugi / 밤주먹 젖혀지르기 / Extended Knuckle Fist Turn-over Punch
    (Jumeok) jeocheo-jireugi / (주먹) 젖혀지르기 / (Fist) Turn-over Punch
  • Chetdar-jireugi (쳇다리지르기) Fork Punch
    A technique of extending both arms in the shape of a fork
    Both fists are aimed at the trunk of the opponent. When seen from above, the shape of both arms looks like that of a fork
  • Chi-jireugi (치지르기) Lift Punch
    A technique of thrusting a punch vertically upward
    This is a striking skill to deliver a turned over fist vertically to the target. It is mainly used to strike the chin; however, if the opponent lowers his or her head, one may hit his or her philtrum.
  • Pyojeok-jireugi (표적지르기) Target Punch
    A technique of striking an imaginary target with the fist
    By making an imaginary target with one’s hand, the performer uses it as a virtual target.

Jjireugi (찌르기) Thrusting

Techniques of striking the opponent’s vital points with the fingertips
These skills have the same movements as those of punching techniques; however, their striking surfaces are the fingertips so that they can deliver a strong impact to the opponent’s vital points
Moeundusonkkeut-sewo-jjireugi / 모은두손끝 세워찌르기 / Combined Two-fingertip Vertical Thrust, Moeunsesonkkeut-sewo-jjireugi / 모은세손끝 세워찌르기 / Combined Three-fingertip Vertical Thrust, Hansonkkeut-sewo-jjireugi / 한손끝 세워찌르기 / Single Fingertip Vertical Thrust

  • Sewo-jjireugi (세워찌르기) Vertical Thrust
    A technique of thrusting at a target with the fingertips vertically turned up
    This is a skill to strike the opponent’s solar plexus. By using hansonkkeut (Single Fingertip), moeundusonkkeut (Combined Two Fingertips) and moeunsesonkkeut (Combined Three Fingertips), one can strike the opponent’s eyes or neck. In order to defend and attack consecutively, one hand executes nulleo-makgi (Pressing Block) while the other hand performs geodeureo-sewo-jjireugi (Supporting Vertical Thrust) in succession.
    <Use>
    Geodeureo-sewo-jjireugi / 거들어 세워찌르기 / Supporting Vertical Thrust
    (Pyeonsonkkeut) sewo-jjireugi / (편손끝) 세워찌르기 / (Flat Fingertips) Vertical Thrust
  • Eopeo-jjireugi (엎어찌르기) Horizontal Thrust
    A technique of thrusting a target with the fingertips horizontally turned down
    This is a skill to strike the opponent’s vital points such as the philtrum or neck. One may use scissors fingers.
    <Use>
    Gawisonkkeut-jjireugi / 가위손끝 찌르기 / Scissors Fingertip Thrust
    (Pyeonsonkkeut) eopeo-jjireugi / (편손끝) 엎어찌르기 / (Flat Fingertips) Horizontal Thrust
  • Jeocheo-jjireugi (젖혀찌르기) Turn-over Thrust
    A technique of thrusting at a target with the fingertips turned over.
    This is a skill of striking the opponent’s lower abdomen and groin.

Jjikgi (찍기) Chopping

Techniques of striking the target swiftly with curled fingers
This is a skill of striking with the fingertips after they are firmly closed at the first knuckles of the five fingers and used in such techniques as naeryeo-jjikgi (Downward Chop) an-jjikgi (Inward Chop) and ap-jjikgi (Forward Chop).
Naeryeo-jjikgi / 내려찍기 / Downward Chop, An-jjikgi / 안찍기 / Inward Chop, Ap-jjikgi / 앞찍기 / Forward Chop

  • Jjikgi (찍기) Chopping
    Techniques of striking the target swiftly with curled fingers
    This is a skill of striking with the fingertips after they are firmly closed at the first knuckles of the five fingers and used in such techniques as naeryeo-jjikgi (Downward Chop) an-jjikgi (Inward Chop) and ap-jjikgi (Forward Chop).
    <Use>
    Naeryeo-jjikgi / 내려찍기 / Downward Chop
    An-jjikgi / 안찍기 / Inward Chop
    Ap-jjikgi / 앞찍기 / Forward Chop

Chagi (차기) Kicking

Techniques of striking a target with the feet by extending or turning legs
They are the skills to dominate the opponent in a confrontation by delivering a strike with the foot. They are offensive skills using the power generated from flexing and extending the knee or swinging the leg.

  • Gawi-chagi (가위차기) Scissors Kick
    A technique of striking two targets simultaneously with both feet widely separated
    This is a striking skill to jump and spread both feet in the shape of scissors and hit two different targets in the air at the same time. One foot employs biteureo-chagi while the other foot yeop-chagi (Side Kick).
    <Use>
    Gawi-chagi (dubang): biteureo-chigi + yoep-chagi / 가위차기 (두 방): 비틀어차기 + 옆차기 / Sissors’ Kick (two targets): Twist Kick + Side Kick
    Gawi-chagi-sebang: gawi-chagi + dollyeo-chagi / 가위차기 세 방: 가위차기 + 돌려차기 / Scissors Kick with three targets: Scissors Kick + Turn Kick
    Gawi-chagi-nebang: gawi-chagi + dollyeo-chagi + huryeo-chagi / 가위차기 네 방: 가위차기 + 돌려차기 + 후려차기 / Scissors Kick with four targets: Scissors Kick + Turn Kick + Whip Kick
    Gawi-chagi-daseotbang: ap-chagi + gawi-chagi + dollyeo-chagi + huryeo-chagi / 가위차기 다섯 방: 앞차기 + 가위차기 + 돌려차기 + 후려차기 / Scissors Kick with five targets: Front Kick + Scissors Kick + Turn Kick + Whip Kick
  • Geodeup-chagi (거듭차기) Repeating Kick
    A technique of executing the same kind of kick successively with the same foot
    This is a technique of striking the target with one foot several times with the same kind of kick while the other foot is in a fixed position.
    <Use>
    Geodeup-dollyeo-chagi / 거듭 돌려차기 / Repeating Turn Kick
    Geodeup-ap-chagi / 거듭 앞차기 / Repeating Front kick
    Geodeup-yeop-chagi / 거듭 옆차기 / Repeating Side kick
  • Gongjungjebi-chagi (공중제비차기) Jumping Flip Kick
    A technique of turning oneself vertically in the air and kicking a target with one or both feet.
    The performer uses his or her waist as an axis to jump up and turn over in the air in order to strike a target high above the head with one or both feet and land safely on the ground.
    <Use>
    Gongjungjebi-modum-(ap)chagi / 공중제비 모둠(앞)차기 / Jumping Flip Drawing (Front) Kick
    Gongjungjebi-(ap)chagi / 공중제비(앞)차기 / Jumping Flip (Front) Kick
  • Gulleo-chagi (굴러차기) Stamping Kick
    A technique of stamping a foot on the ground and consecutively striking a target with the same stamping foot
    This is a kicking skill in which the front foot is lifted off the ground and stamped hard enough to gain a momentum. When the following rear foot is about to touch the ground, one kicks the target with the pounded foot. This skill is commonly applied to ap-chagi, dolryeo-chagi, yeop-chagi, etc.
  • Narae-chagi (나래차기) Wing Kicks
    A technique of executing Turning Kicks alternately with both feet in the air
    The first kick is a feint motion so that the leg is not fully extended. The second kick is to be used to strike a target with precision and power.
  • Nakka-chagi (낚아차기) Hook Kick
    A technique of striking a target with the back of the heel by bending the knee
    When the opponent evades one’s side kick and closes in, one can use the power generated from the extended knee by bending it and striking the back of the opponent’s head or back. One may also hook the neck or the back of the knee according to the circumstances.
  • Naeryeo-chagi (내려차기) Downward Kick
    A technique of striking a target from the upper to lower direction
    This is a striking skill using the sole of the foot or the back of the heel aiming at the opponent’s face or shoulder. Naeryeo-chagi is usually performed with the knee bent, lifted, extended forward, and then striking vertically downward on the opponent. In sparring, the strike can be performed inward or outward depending on the position of the opponent.
    <Use>
    Dwidola-ttwieo-naeryeo-chagi / 뒤돌아 뛰어 내려차기 / Back Jumping Downward Kick
    Balbucheo-naeryeo-chagi / 발붙여 내려차기 / Supporting Downward Kick
    Japgo-naeryeo-chagi / 잡고 내려치기 / Holding Downward Kick
  • Dabangyang-chagi (다방향차기) Multi?direction Kick
    Kicking techniques used for striking targets placed in various locations with one leap.
    This is a skill of breaking several targets located in various directions consecutively by throwing oneself up into the air with one big leap.
  • Dolgae-chagi (돌개차기): Whirl Kick Dolgaechagi
    A technique of jumping backward to deliver a kick
    To deceive or to strike the opponent harder, the front foot is used as an axis to make a full or more turns backward to deliver a kick.
    <Use>
    (360º) dolgae-chagi / (360도) 돌개차기 / (360º) Whirl Kick
    540º dolgae-chagi / 540도 돌개차기 / 540º Whirl Kick
    720º dolgae-chagi / 720도 돌개차기 / 720º Whirl Kick
  • Dollyeo-chagi (돌려차기) Turning Kick
    A technique of turning the foot inward to strike a target
    This is a skill of pivoting the supporting leg and completely turning the hip in to strike the opponent’s face or trunk with the ball of the foot or the instep. A turning kick is generally employed to strike the opponent’s vital points such as temples and ribs with the ball of the foot. In sparring and kicking practice, the instep is utilized in order to expand the area of the striking surface or to avoid injuring the opponent while still getting points.
    <Use>
    Baldeung-dollyeo-chagi / 발등 돌려차기 / Instep Turn Kick
    Apchuk-dollyeo-chagi / 앞축 돌려차기 / Turn Kick with the ball of the foot
    Gulleo-dollyeo-chagi / 굴러 돌려차기 / Stamping Turn Kick
    Ttwieo-dollyeo-chagi / 뛰어 돌려차기 / Jumping Turn Kick
    Modum-dollyeo-chagi / 모둠 돌려차기 / Drawing Turn Kick
    Balbuchyeo-dollyeo-chagi / 발붙여 돌려차기 / Skipping Turn Kick
    Japgo-dollye-chagi / 잡고 돌려차기 / Holding Turn kick
  • Dubaldangseong-chagi (두발당성차기) Flying Kick
    A technique of jumping up and kicking the front target with both feet in sequence
    The leading foot (rear foot) is used as a feint motion by kicking it low. The following foot (front foot) strikes the front target with precision by kicking it high.
  • Dwi-chagi (뒤차기) Back (Thrust) Kick
    A technique of striking the target by bending the knee and thrusting backward
    This is a skill of striking the opponent with the bottom of the heel in his or her stomach or chest. This is generally employed by turning one’s body backward and executing a kick when the opponent is in front. Occasionally, one may deliver a straight kick in a fixed position to the target.
    <Use>
    Dwi-chagi / 뒤차기 / Back (Thrust) Kick
    Ttwieo-dwi-chagi / 뛰어 뒤차기 / Jumping Back (Thrust) Kick
  • Ttwieo-chagi (뛰어차기) Jumping Kick
    A technique of jumping and striking a target
    This is a skill of jumping forward and striking a high or distant target unreachable from a stationery posture. When this skill is combined with kicking techniques such as ap-chagi, dolryeo-chagi, yeop-chagi, naeryeo-chage, dwi-chagi and dwi-huryeo-chagi, they can be classified under this general term.
  • Modum-chagi (모둠차기) Drawing Kick
    A technique of striking the same target with both feet simultaneously
    This is a kicking skill of drawing one’s feet together in the air to strike the same target. Such kicking skills as modum-ap-chagi, modum-dollyeo-chagi and modum-yeop-chagi can be classified under this general term.
  • Mireo-chagi (밀어차기) Pushing Kick
    A technique of pushing the opponent with the foot
    This is a pushing technique to make the opponent fall or to maintain some distance with him or her by using the ball or sole of the foot.
    <Use>
    Mireo-ap-chagi / 밀어 앞차기 / Pushing Front Kick
    Mireo-yeop-chagi / 밀어 옆차기 / Pushing Side Kick
  • Bakkat-chagi (바깥차기) Outward Kick
    A striking technique using the outside edge of the foot (Foot Blade) traveling from the inside to the outside.
    This is a skill of striking the side of the opponent’s face with the blade of the foot by swinging the foot widely with the knee, facing up from the inside to the outside of the performer.
  • Bada-chagi (받아차기) Counter Kick
    A technique of counterattacking the opponent’s attack.
    When the opponent launches a kicking attack in sparring, one can counter it with such skills as dolryeo-chagi (Turn Kick or Roundhouse Kick), naeryeo-chagi (Downward Kick), dwi-chagi (Back Kick), dwihuryeo-chagi (Back Whip Kick), etc. This common term is used for all such circumstances.
    <Use>
    Dwitbal-bada-chagi / 뒷발 받아차기 / Rear Foot Counter Kick
    Apbal-bada-chagi / 앞발 받아차기 / Front Foot Counter Kick
  • Balbucheo-chagi (발붙여차기) Skipping Kick
    A technique of bringing the rear foot to the position of the front foot and immediately striking the target with the front foot.
    This skill is commonly used when the opponent is out of range and/or the performer cannot reach the opponent from a stationery posture. In order to close the distance between the performer and the opponent and/or to increase speed and power of the kick, make a skipping step forward with the rear foot and bring it in close to the heel of the front foot. Simultaneously, deliver a blow to the head or trunk of the opponent with the front foot. When this skill is combined with kicking techniques such as balbucheo-dolryeo-chagi (Skipping Turn Kick), balbucheo-yeop-chagi (Skipping Side Kick) and balbucheo-huryeo-chagi (Skipping Whip Kick), they can be classified under this general term.
  • Biteureo-chagi (비틀어차기) Twisting Kick
    A technique of striking a target from the inside to the outside of the body with the instep
    When the opponent advances with dolryeo-chagi and naeryeo-chagi, one may take a step to the left or the right and strike the opponent’s face or trunk from the inside to the outside of one’s body.
    <Use>
    Ttwieo-biteureo-chagi / 뛰어 비틀어차기 / Jumping Twisting Kick
    (Baldeung) Biteureo-chagi / (발등) 비틀어차기 / (Instep) Twisting Kick
    Japgo-biteureo-chagi / 잡고 비틀어차기 / Holding Twisting Kick
  • 뻗어차기 Ppeodeochagi
    다리를 접었다 내뻗으며 목표물을 가격하는 기술.
    앞축이나 뒤축 등을 이용하여 무릎을 가슴 가까이 접었다 내뻗으며 상대방의 얼굴이나 몸통 등을 수직으로 가격하는 기술로서 ‘앞차기, 옆차기, 뒤차기’ 등을 통칭한다.
  • An-chagi (안차기) Inward Kick
    A technique of striking a target from the outside to the inside of the performer with the inside edge of the foot (Reverse Foot Blade)
    This is a skill that requires swinging of the foot from the outside to the inside with the knee facing upward. This skill is designed to strike the side of an opponent’s face with the reverse foot blade and is used in such skills as pyojeok-chagi (Target Kick).
  • Ap-chagi (앞차기) Front (Snap) Kick
    A technique to strike a target in front of the performer with the foot
    This is a skill of delivering a blow to the opponent’s chin, solar plexus, stomach, etc. with one’s instep, the ball of the foot, or the bottom of the heel. Commonly, ap-chagi is executed by bending the knee and extending it to kick straight into the target. Occasionally, one can kick straight up to the opponent’s chin and testicles. One may also push the opponent with the foot to maintain the distance with him or her.
    <Use>
    Dwichuk-ap-chagi / 뒤축 앞차기 / Front Kick with the heel of the foot
    Ttwieo-dubal-ap-chagi / 뛰어 두발 앞차기 / Jumping Two-foot Front Kick
    Ttwieo-ap-chagi / 뛰어 앞차기 / Jumping Front Kick
    Modum-ap-chagi / 모둠 앞차기 / Drawing Front Kick
    Baldeung-ap-chagi / 발등 앞차기 / Instep Front Kick
    Apchuk-ap-chagi / 앞축 앞차기 / Front Kick with the ball of the foot
    Japgo-ap-chagi / 잡고 앞차기 / Holding Front Kick
  • Yeop-chagi (옆차기) Side (Thrust) Kick
    A technique of delivering a kick by turning one’s body to the side
    This is a skill of striking the opponent’s face or chest with the outside edge of the foot or the bottom of the foot. The side kick is usually performed by turning one’s body to the side and at the same time bending the leg and extending it to kick the target. In some circumstances, one may push the opponent with the foot to maintain the distance from the opponent.
    <Use>
    Gulleo-yeop-chagi / 굴러 옆차기 / Stamping Side Kick
    Ttwieo-yeop-chagi / 뛰어 옆차기 / Jumping Side kick
    Modum-yeop-chagi / 모둠 옆차기 / Drawing Side Kick
    Balbutye-yeop-chagi / 발붙여 옆차기 / Skipping Side Kick
    Japgo-yeop-chagi / 잡고 옆차기 / Holding Side Kick
  • Ieo-chagi (이어차기) Alternating Kick
    A technique of performing the same kind of kick by alternating the use of each foot in sequence
    In practice, the same kind of kicking skill is performed alternately with both feet until mastery is acquired. In sparring, a skill such as dolryeo-chagi is executed consecutively and this can be expressed as ieo-dolryeo-chagi (Alternating Turn Kick).
  • Japgo-chagi (잡고차기) Holding Kick
    A technique of holding part of the opponent’s body and striking with the foot
    This is a skill of immobilizing the opponent by holding part of the opponent’s body and kicking him or her. These skills are combined with various kicking techniques and can be named japgo-ap-chagi, japgo-dolryeo-chagi, japgo-yeop-chagi, japgo-naeryeo-chagi, japgo-biteuryeo-chagi, japgo-huryeo-chagi and so forth.
  • Jitjjiki (짓찧기) Stamping to the instep
    A technique of stamping on the opponent’s instep with the performer's foot
    This is a skill of stepping on the opponent’s instep so that he or she cannot move or escape or crushing it into the ground.
  • Pyojeok-chagi (표적차기) Target Kick
    A technique of making a target with the open hand and kicking into it
    When practicing poomsae (patterns), one makes an imaginary target with one’s hand and strikes it with an-chagi (Inward kick).
  • Huryeo-chagi (후려차기) Whipping Kick
    A technique of whipping the bottom of the foot in a wide curve and striking the target
    This is a skill of whipping the sole or the back of the foot and striking the opponent’s face. Generally, this kick is executed with one’s body facing front, the knee bending and extending, and the bottom of the foot swinging into the target. Occasionally, this kick can be done without bending the knee or by turning one’s body backward.
    <Use>
    360º Dwi-huryeo-chagi / 360도 뒤후려차기 / 360º Back Whip Kick
    540º Dwi-huryeo-chagi / 540도 뒤후려차기 / 540º Back Whip Kick
    Dwi-huryeo-chagi / 뒤후려차기 / Back Whip Kick
    Dwitbal-dwi-huryeo-chagi / 뒷발 후려차기 / Rear Leg Whip Kick
    Ttwieo-dwi-huryeo-chagi / 뛰어 뒤후려차기 / Jumping Back Whip Kick
    Japgo-balbutyeo-huryeo-chagi / 발붙여 후려차기 / Skipping Whip Kick
    Apbal-huryeo-chagi / 앞발 후려차기 / Front Foot Whip Kick
    Huryeo-chagi / 잡고 후려차기 / Holding Whip Kick

Chigi (치기) Striking

All kinds of offensive techniques delivered by the hand excluding fist, fingertips and foot
They are the techniques of striking targets by using the rotational force of the body while the elbow is being bent and extended or just in a state of being bent. These techniques include all offensive strikes executed with hands except jireugi (punching), jjirueugi (thrusting), and jjikgi (chopping)

  • Geodeureo-chigi (거들어치기) Supporting Strike
    A striking technique with the support of the other hand
    It is a striking skill of one hand with the support of the other which adds additional mass and speed to the striking hand, thus generating a greater rotational force of the body. It can also be used as a preparatory motion for follow?ups in sequence.
  • Naeyeo-chigi (내려치기) Downward Strike
    A striking technique delivered from a higher to a lower level
    This refers to a vertical strike with the bent elbow delivered to a target by using the Back Knuckle, Hammer Hand, Hand Blade, Elbow, etc. When striking with the Ridge Hand, the arm should be completely extended to avoid injury to the joint.
    <Use>
    Deungjumeok-naerye-chigi / 등주먹 내려치기 / Back Knuckle Downward Strike
    Mejumeok-naeryeo-chigi / 메주먹 내려치기 / Hammer Hand Downward Strike
    Sonnal-naeryeo-chigi / 손날 내려치기 / Hand Blade Downward Strike
    Sonnaldeung-naeryeo-chigi / 손날등 내려치기 / Ridge Hand Downward Strike
    Palgup-naeryeo-chigi / 팔굽 내려치기 / Elbow Downward Strike
  • Danggyeo-chigi (당겨치기) Pulling Strike
    A technique of pulling the opponent and delivering a strike with deungjumeok, mejumeok, palkkumchi (elbow), etc.
    This is a striking skill of pulling the opponent with one hand, making him or her immobilized or inescapable and delivering a blow with the other hand using deungjumeok, mejumeok, palkkumchi and so forth.
    <Use>
    Danggyeo-deung-jumeok-ap-chigi / 당겨 등주먹 앞치기 / Pulling Back Knuckle Front Strike
    Danggyeo-palgup-ap-chigi / 당겨 팔굽 앞치기 / Pulling Elbow Front Strike
  • Dollyeo-chigi (돌려치기) Turning Strike
    A striking technique of using the rotational force of the body moving horizontally against the target
    This is a striking skill of delivering a blow to the opponent’s temple or solar plexus with the bent elbow. The performer may use his or her knee to attack the opponent in the solar plexus or the ribs.
    <Use>
    Mureup-dollyeo-chigi / 무릎 돌려치기 / Knee Turn Strike
    Palgup-dollyeo-chigi / 팔굽 돌려치기 / Elbow Turn Strike
  • Dwi-chigi (뒤치기) Elbow Strike to the rear
    A technique of striking the target behind with the elbow
    This is a skill of striking the ribs of the assailant backward with the elbow when the performer is grabbed by the assailant from behind
  • Bakkat-chigi (바깥치기) Outward Strike
    A technique of striking the outside of a target
    This is a skill of striking the outside of the opponent using deungjumeok (Back Knuckle), mejumeok (Hammer Hand), sonnal (Hand Blade), etc. with his or her elbow bent. This skill is an outward traveling strike carried out from the inside of the performer and can be executed with the support of the other hand.
    <Use>
    Geodeureo-bakkat-chigi / 거들어 바깥치기 / Supporting Outward Strike
    Deungjumeok-bakkat-chigi / 등주먹 바깥치기 / Back Knuckle Outward Strike
    Mejumeok-bakkat-chigi / 메주먹 바깥치기 / Hammer Hand Outward Strike
    Sonnaldeung-bakkat-chigi / 손날등 바깥치기 / Ridge Hand Outward Strike
    Sonnal-bakkat-chigi / 손날 바깥치기 / Hand Blade Outward Strike
  • Biteureo-chigi (비틀어치기) Twisting Strike
    A striking technique of twisting the body of the performer
    This is a striking skill of twisting one’s trunk with the advancing leg and striking arm facing and traveling against each other.
  • An-chigi (안치기) Inward Strike
    A technique of striking the opponent from the outside to the inside
    This is a turning striking skill that travels from the outside to the inside of the performer using gomson (Curled Hand), sonnal (Hand Blade), sonnaldeung (Ridge Hand), mejumeok (Hammer Hand) or batangson (Palm Heel).
    <Use>
    Gomson-an-chigi / 곰손 안치기 / Curled Hand Inward Strike
    Du-mejumeok-an-chigi / 두 메주먹 안치기 / Two-hammer Hand Inward Strike
    Du-sonnal-an-chigi / 두 손날 안치기 / Two-hand Blade Inward Strike
    Mejumeok-an-chigi / 메주먹 안치기 / Hammer Hand Inward Strike
    Batangson-an-chigi / 바탕손 안치기 / Palm Heel Inward Strike
    Sonnaldeung-an-chigi / 손날등 안치기 / Ridge Hand Inward strike
    Sonnal-an-chigi / 손날 안치기 / Hand Blade Inward Strike
  • Ap-chigi (앞치기) Forward Strike
    A technique of striking a target with deungjumeok (Back Knuckle) or ageumson (Arc Hand)
    This is a skill to strike the opponent’s nose or philtrum by bending one’s elbow and striking from the inside to the front or from the outside to the inside in a circular motion with back knuckle. Also, one may strike the opponent’s throat or chest in a linear motion with batangson or ageumson.
    <Use>
    Gomson-ap-chigi / 곰손 앞치기 / Curled Hand Forward Strike
    Deungjumeok-ap-chigi / 등주먹 앞치기 / Back Knuckle Forward Strike
    Batangson-ap-chigi / 바탕손 앞치기 / Palm Heel Forward Strike
    Ageumson-ap-chigi / 아금손 앞치기 / Arc Hand Forward Strike
  • Yeop-chigi (옆치기) Side Strike
    A striking technique of delivering a blow to the target standing at the side
    This is a skill of delivering a blow in the head or trunk of the opponent standing at the side with deungjumeok, mejumeok, sonnal, palgup, etc.
    <Use>
    Du-palgup-yeop-chigi [=Meonge?chigi] / 두 팔굽 옆치기 [=멍에치기] / Two-elbow Side Strike [=Yoke Strike]
    Deungjumeok-yeop-chigi / 등주먹 옆치기 / Back Knuckle Side Strike
    Mejumeok-yeop-chigi / 메주먹 옆치기 / Hammer Hand Side Strike
    Sonnal-yeop-chigi / 손날 옆치기 / Hand Blade Side Strike
    Sonnaldeung-yeop-chigi / 손날등 옆치기 / Ridge Hand Side Strike
    Palgup-yeop-chigi / 팔굽 옆치기 / Elbow Side Strike
  • Ollyeo-chigi (올려치기) Upward Strike
    A striking technique vertically delivered from a lower to a higher level
    This is a striking skill to deliver a blow to the opponent’s jaw with batangson or gupin-sonmok (Bent Wrist) or his or her solar plexus with the elbow. When grabbing the opponent, the performer may strike the solar plexus or stomach of the opponent with his or her knee.
    <Use>
    Gupinsonmok-ollyeo-chigi / 굽힌손목 올려치기 / Bent Wrist Upward Strike
    Mureup-ollyeo-chigi / 무릎 올려치기 / Knee Upward Strike
    Batangson-ollyeo-chigi / 바탕손 올려치기 / Palm Heel Upward Strike
    Palgup-ollyeo-chigi / 팔굽 올려치기 / Elbow Upward Strike
  • Jebipum?chigi (제비품치기) Swallow Strike
    A technique of striking inward or forward with one hand while blocking upward with the other hand
    This is a skill of bringing defense and offense together in one movement. The performer can execute olryeo-makgi (Upward Block) using one hand in the form of the Hand Blade while striking the opponent’s jaw or neck with batangson-apchigi (Palm Heel Forward Strike) or sonnal-anchigi (Hand Blade Inward Strike) with the other hand.
    <Use>
    Jebipum (batangson) ap-chigi / 제비품 (바탕손) 앞치기 / Swallow (Palm Heel) Front Strike
    Jebipum (sonnal) an-chigi / 제비품 (손날) 안치기 / Swallow (Hand Blade) Inward Strike
  • Pyojeok-chigi (표적치기) Target Strike
    After making an imaginary target with one hand, it is a technique of striking it with the other hand.
    Especially, when performing poomsae, the performer may picture an imaginary opponent by making a target with his or her own hand open and facing toward him or her and drive a blow into the imaginary target with the other hand in the form of mejumeok or palgeup.
    <Use>
    Mejumeok-naeryeo-pyojeok-chigi / 메주먹 내려 표적치기 / Hammer Hand Downward Target Strike
    Mejumeok-pyojeok-chigi / 메주먹 표적치기 / Hammer Hand Target Strike
    Palgup-pyojeok-chigi / 팔굽 표적치기 / Elbow Target Strike

Pihagi (피하기) Evading or Dodging

Techniques of moving the performer’s body to evade or dodge the opponent’s attack
These are skills to avoid the opponent’s attack by turning or twisting the performer's body to the left or right or by lowering it forward or leaning it backward.

  • Biteureo-pihagi (비틀어피하기) Twisting Evasive Technique
    An evading technique of twisting the performer’s upper body
    This is an evasive skill of twisting the upper body to the left when the left foot is in front or to the right when the right foot is in front.
  • Sugyeo-pihagi (숙여피하기) Ducking Evasive Technique
    A dodging technique by lowering the upper body
    This is an evasive skill of lowering the performer's upper body forward and duckling one’s posture to avoid the opponent’s attack.
  • Jeocheo-pihagi (젖혀피하기) Back Leaning Evasive Technique
    A technique of leaning the upper body backward to evade the opponent’s attack
    This is a skill of evading the opponent’s attack by leaning the performer's upper body backward and lowering the posture.
  • Teureo-pihagi (틀어피하기) Turning Evasive Technique
    A technique of evading by turning the upper body
    This is a dodging skill by turning the upper body to the right when the left foot is in front or turning it to the left when the right foot is in front.

Teuksupum (특수품) Special Patterns

A preparatory motion for performing attacks and defenses in sequence
It is used as a preparatory movement for the follow?up moves. The upper Back Knuckle faces upward for keun-doljjeogwi (Big Hinge) whereas it faces forward for jageun-doljjeogwi (Small Hinge).

  • Doljjeogwi (돌쩌귀) Hinge
    A preparatory motion for performing attacks and defenses in sequence
    It is used as a preparatory movement for the follow?up moves. The upper Back Knuckle faces upward for keun-doljjeogwi (Big Hinge) whereas it faces forward for jageun-doljjeogwi (Small Hinge).
    <Use>
    Jageun-doljjeogwi / 작은 돌쩌귀 / Small Hinge
    Keun-doljjeogwi / 큰 돌쩌귀 / Big Hinge

Applicable Parts of the Body

Body parts used when delivering taekwondo techniques

  • Gawisonkkeut (가위손끝): technically known as ‘Scissors Fingertips’
    The fingertips of the index finger and the middle finger, stretched and opened apart while three other fingers are rolled into the palm.
  • Gomson (곰손): technically known as ‘Curled Hand’
    Indicating the parts including the heel of the palm (Batangson: Palm Heel) and the third knuckles of the fingers except the thumb which are more tightly rolled into the palm than those of Pyeonjumeok (Half-clenched Fist)
  • Gupinsonmok (굽힌손목): technically known as ‘Bent Wrist’
    It is the joint area between the back of the hand and the back of the wrist (area) which is bent inward.
  • Dwikkumchi (뒤꿈치): Back of the Heel
    The edge of the heel where it joins the Achilles tendon
  • Dwichuk (뒤축): Bottom of the Heel
    The rear part of the sole
  • Deungjumeok (등주먹): technically known as ‘Back Knuckle’
    The upper part of the first two knuckles of the index finger and the middle finger when a punch is delivered.
  • Deungpalmok (등팔목): Back of the Wrist
    The upper side of the wrist when a punch is delivered
  • Mejumeok (메주먹): technically known as ‘Hammer Hand’
    The outside edge of the fist when a punch is delivered
  • Modumsonkkeut (모둠손끝): technically known as ‘Curled Fingertips’
    The fingertips of the five fingers all curled together
  • Moeundusonkkeut (모은두손끝): technically known as ‘Combined Two Fingertips’
    The fingertips of the index finger and the middle finger are stretched and closed together while other three fingers are rolled into the palm.
  • Moeunsesonkkeut (모은세손끝): ‘Combined Three Fingertips’
    The fingertips of the three large fingers with the index finger and the ring finger are stretched and closed together with the middle finger on top of them while the thumb and the little finger are rolled together.
  • Mureup (무릎): Knee
    The area where the patella is located between the upper and lower leg
  • Mitpalmok (밑팔목): Base of the Wrist or Inner Wrist
    The area of the wrist facing down when a punch is delivered
  • Bakkatpalmok (바깥팔목): technically known as ‘Outside Wrist’
    The area indicating the outside edge of the wrist when a punch is delivered
  • Batangson (바탕손): technically known as ‘Palm Heel’
    The heel (or base) of the palm or the lower part of the palm when the hand is bent upward.
  • Balkkeut (발끝): Tips of the Toes
    The ends of the toes when the foot is straightened
  • Balnal (발날): technically known as ‘Foot Blade’
    The outside edge of the foot or the edge between the sole and the instep from the little toe to the heel
  • Balnaldeung (발날등): technically known as ‘Reverse Foot Blade’
    The inside edge of the foot or the reverse side of the outside edge of the foot
  • Baldeung (발등): Instep of the Foot
    The top of the foot or upper part of the foot
  • Balbadak (발바닥): Sole of the Foot
    The bottom of the foot
  • Bamjumeok (밤주먹): technically known as ‘Extended Knuckle Fist’
    The knuckle with the middle knuckle of the middle finger protruded
  • Son (손): Hand
    The part of the arm below the wrist with its fingers and thumb open
  • Sonnal (손날): technically known as ‘Hand Blade’
    The outside edge of the open hand from the baby finger to the wrist with the other three fingers and thumb all fixed together with their tips slightly bent inward
  • Sonnaldeung (손날등): technically known as ‘Ridge Hand’
    The inside edge of the open hand with the thumb tucked into the palm covering the side area from the first knuckle of the thumb and that of the index finger
  • Sondeung (손등): technically known as ‘Back Hand’
    The back of the hand or the reverse side of the palm
  • Sonbadak (손바닥: Palm)
    The inside surface of the hand between the base of the fingers and the wrist
  • Ageumson (아금손): technically known as ‘Arc Hand’
    When the hand is open, the thumb and the index finger are spread wide with the knuckles of the fingers slightly curled inward in the shape of the crescent moon
  • Anpalmok (안팔목): technically known as ‘Inside Wrist’
    The inside edge of the wrist when a punch is delivered
  • Apchuk (앞축): Ball of the Foot
    The frontal area of the sole of the foot when the toes are all pulled back
  • Jeonggangi (정강이): Shin
    The area where the frontal bones of the lower leg are located
  • Jumeok (주먹): Fist
    Representing the hand with the fingers all curled up, especially the frontal part of the first knuckles of the index finger and middle finger as the striking area
  • Jipgebamjumeok (집게밤주먹): technically known as ‘Trigger Finger Fist’
    The fist with the second knuckle of the index finger protruded when the fist is clenched
  • Jipgejumeok (집게주먹): technically known as ‘Pincers Fist’
    The state of making a pair of pincers with the thumb and the index finger while keeping the other three fingers rolled into the palm
  • Pal (팔): Arm
    The part between the shoulder and the wrist which can be flexed or extended at the joint of the elbow
  • Palgup (팔굽): Elbow
    The outer part of the joint where the upper and lower arm meet
  • Palmok (팔목): Wrist Area
    The area between the hand and the forearm which can be measured with the four fingers from the base of the hand
  • Pyeonsonkkeut (편손끝): technically known as ‘Flat Fingertips’
    The end point where the middle finger is slightly curved to be in line with the index and ring fingers while all fingers are pressed together
  • Pyeonjumeok (편주먹): technically known as ‘Half-clenched Fist’
    The second or middle knuckle area when the first knuckles of the four fingers are extended or flattened from the form of a clenched fist
  • Hansonkkeut (한손끝): technically known as ‘Single Fingertip’
    The extended point of the index fingertip with the rest of the fingers all curled
  • 문화체육관광부
  • WTF
  • KTA
  • TPF
  • 태권도전문쇼핑몰/한국브랜드KSD
  • 외교통상부
  • 한국관광공사
  • 우리카드
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